|Quantization in Astronomy|
|As galaxies become dimmer, there emission spectra are shifted toward the red. The standard assumption is that the redshift is doppler, it is the result of the galaxy moving away from us.
The strongest challenge to this hypothesis is redshift quantization. When galaxy motions are corrected for the motion of our own galaxy, they come in discrete multiples of 37.5km/s when interpreted as velocity. Clusters of quasars have redshifts that tend to come in integral powers of 1.23 times the lowest redshift in the cluster. There is considerable evidence that quasars are not only associated with galaxies of much lower redshift, but may have been expelled from their core. The quasars then grow into typical galaxies and as they do, their reshifts become closer to the parent galaxy. This behavior is comletely incompatible with standard physics. A simple explanation would be that when a particle like an electron is created, its mass is initially smaller than the accepted value. It then slowly reaches an equilibrium value with nearby matter. Since matter distribution is discrete, the electon mass would assume discrete values which would lead to discrete redshifts.
For certain electron models (Barut's; Battey-Pratt and Racey's) the electron mass is proportional to its spin. So as it would acquire mass it would also acquire angular momentum (or vice versa). This behavior is similar to what earth expansion would require.
Halton Arp has also suggested that planetary masses and other astronomical bodies are quantized. They tend to be related by the same type of formula as the quasar redshifts. Their masses are equal to a base mass times 1.23 to an integral power. The most obvious explanation of this is that mass would be created in episodes where mass already exists, and it would be created in proportion to its existing mass. The simplest explanation of Arp's planetary mass hypothesis is the same as that required to explain the earth expansion rates suggested by Carey,Scalera, Koziar, etc.
|Autocorrelation of galaxy redshifts by Napier and Guthrie|
|Astronomical quantization links.|
|Seein Red, Arp's very readable book on the entire controversy|
|Cosmological Coincidences involving astronomical quantization|
|Please send comments and other appropriate links to:|
|Name:||Martin Kokus/astronomical quantization|