Spherical Rotation-The Battey-Pratt and Racey Electron There have been many theories that have treated elementary particles as vortices, a piece of space or ether that is rotating.  These compliment cosmologies with a rotating hierarchy. Moons rotate about planets, planets rotate about stars, stars rotate about galaxies, galaxies rotate about galaxy clusters, and the clustera rotate about superclusters, until finally the whole universe is rotating. If the rotation is a simple rotation about an axis (cylindrical rotation) then wh have a problem. Somewhere there has to be a discontinuity in space. But if the axis initially undergoes an 180 degree (or integral multiple thereof) rotation perpendicular to the final axis of continuous rotation or spin, we have a three dimensional vortex with some interesting properties. Battey-Pratt and Racey have shown that this type of vortex, or spherical rotation, explains the group properties of electrons and positrons (it satisfies the conditions ofSU(2)) and it also explains special relativity (the Lorentzian interpretation with a preferred reference frame). In conjunction with the leptonic theory of matter, it provides a mechanism for particle creation and the mass of these particles wouls be dependent on the rate of their final spin. After the particles are created their rotation rates would reach equilibrium with the particles within their ken, much as eddies in stable turbulence reach an equilibrium with each other. As they interacted with older particles, they would gain mass.  Since the mass of the universe is structured in clusters, the mass of the particle would increase in quantum jumps, explaing redshift quantization. Older particles would very slowly lose mass as the number of new particles in their ken increases, decreasing the gravitational attraction between them. This and particle creation would explain earth expansion. As the number of particles in an astronomical body would increase, and as the spin of those particles increases, so would the angular momentum as measured in new particle masses, solving the rotation rate/earth expansion paradox.  E.P.Battey-Pratt; T.J.Racey, 1980. Geometric model for fundamental particles. International Journal of Theoretical Physics, 19:437-475.Martin Kokus, 1996. Spherical Rotation, particles and cosmology. Astrophysics and Space Science 244:353-356. Spherical rotation-the curved axies represent the original rotation Websites covering spherical rotation. Wolff's model Tom Bearden's site Yahoo! Photos Yahoo! Greetings Comments and Suggestions Name: Martin Kokus/spherical rotation Email: martinkokus@yahoo.com